Mr. Speaker, Sir.
I rise to present the Budget estimates of the Government of Meghalaya for the financial year 1976-77.
2. We are just completing the most momentous year since independence. The country has witnessed a remarkable improvement in the political and economic situation. The rate of growth of national income is expected to be about 5.5 percent. This will be the highest annual growth rate since 1970-71. The reversal in the price trend is almost a miracle. At its peak in the third week of September, 1974 , the whole sale price index stood at the highest ever level of 330.7, marking a steep rise of 32 percent during the preceding 12 months. The prices were soaring. The economy virtually stood on the brink of a disaster. The latest index ended 10th January, 1976 reveals that it is back to the level where it was 21 months ago. Inflation has been arrested and prices have started falling. This is unique in the current international situation During the current year agricultural production will rise by about 8 percent as against no increase during 1970-71 and 1974-75. The rise in industrial production is expected to be about 4.5 percent. All the indications are that a big growth rate may be expected in the coming years.
Emergency and New Economic Programme.
3. The proclamation of emergency by the President and announcement of the 20-point economic programme were the outstanding, events of 1975. The State Government had welcomed both. The emergency has safeguarded the country's unity and stability. The economic programme has given a new sense of direction and urgency to the immediate need to ameliorate the conditions of poorer sections of society. It is a major step toward a dynamic and just society. Nation's idealism has been stimulated. In a short period this programme has had a telling impact on all aspects of the economy.
20-Point Economic Programme.
4. The 20-point economic programme was immediately examined by the State Planning Board Plan priorities were re-adjusted. The prices of essential commodities have significantly fallen. Before any land reforms can be considered, it is necessary to carry out a cadastral survey and have record of rights. Where these exist as in plain mauzas of Garo Hills, land reforms will be taken up in consultation with the District Council. A scheme of surveys has been drawn upto complete the same in the next 10 or 15 years at an annual cost of about Rs. 21 lakhs per annum. A Bill was also passed providing for moratorium on rural debt. This is awaiting assent of the President. To avoid hardship, taccavi loan of Rs. 25 lakhs is being distributed through the Apex Bank. Seven housing co-operative societies have been established to facilitate house construction. Our problem is not one of house sites, but of finances for house construction. Minimum wages have been notified in the agricultural and construction sectors. Nine irrigation schemes are under implementation and are likely to be completed by June, 1976 covering 2,900 hectares and benefiting 3.170 families. One hundred shallow tube-wells are also being construction covering 1,200 hectares. Controlled cloth is being distributed through 3 wholesale co-operative societies and 99 retail co-operative societies. There is need for cheap warm clothing and this has been taken up with the Central Government. Essential commodities at controlled prices are being distributed to 87 hostels covering 8,167 students. Text-book banks have been opened in 10 colleges, 100 high schools and 200 middle schools. In addition, there are now 3 study rooms for the exclusive use of students in the three district headquarters. Applications have been invited for 50 permits allocated to the State under the National Permit Scheme for road transport. Under the new apprenticeship scheme, 150 seats have been located in 87 establishments. So far, 45 apprentices have been engaged. Technical trades are still to be covered. Passed trainees in weaving and needy weavers have been supplied with free and subsidised yarn respectively. Total number covered is 360. In the plan for next year, the content of this programme is Rs. 7.68 crores out of the total plan outlay of Rs. 20.22 crores. This is only a beginning and much remains to be done. To ensure that the programme receives priority and actually benefits the weaker sections, Co-ordination Committees have been set up. Details of the achievements have also been separately circulated to the Hon'ble Members.
5. There has been steady progress in the operation of the Commercial Banks, but it is still not satisfactory. Our people largely have not been able to obtain bank assistance because of their rigid attitudes and unhelpful work procedures. These should be reoriented if social objectives are to be achieved. In June, 1974, the banks accounted for Rs. 20.42 crores of deposits and only Rs. 1.92 crores of advances. Per capita deposit figures in Meghalaya compare favourably with the all-India average figures and in fact, are much higher than the average figures for all backward districts in the country. But per capita bank credit for our State is comparatively very low. As regards credit deposit ratios these were 12.4 in December, 1972, 11.8 in June, 1973 and 9.7 in December, 1973. For the same period, the all-India averages were 66.4, 69.2 and 70.4. The establishment of branches is also lop-sided, out of 18 branches in June, 1974, 22 percent were in rural areas, 12 percent in semi-urban areas and 66 percent in urban and metropolitan areas as against the all-India figures of 36.4 percent, 29.7 percent and 33.9 percent respectively. If we examine occupation-wise classification of outstanding credit, we find that the weaker sections in Meghalaya and still to be properly served by the banks. The banks also have their own difficulties in expanding credit and advances particularly in regard to land tenure system in some areas. We are seized of their problem and steps are being taken to enact a suitable legislation during the current Session.
5.1 The Central Government is to be congratulated for setting up rural banks. Meghalaya fulfils most of the conditions for the establishment of a rural bank. The deposit potential is good. The scope for banking development is considerable. Technical services for agricultural and other schemes are available. Credit requirements are big, but only a small percentage has been met by co-operative institutions and nationalised banks. The area is predominantly inhabited by members of scheduled tribes. We had requested for the establishment of a rural bank and we hope that our request will be soon accepted.
5.2. Without adequate flow of credit from co-operative societies, nationalised banks or the new rural banks, integrated rural development cannot be quickly achieved. We are therefore constantly reviewing this matter till satisfactory arrangements are established.
Annual Plan 1975-76.
6. As mentioned in my last budget speech, we had taken up with the Planning Commission the question of increase in the total outlay. An amount of Rs. 4.05 lakhs was agreed in respect of Kyrdemkulai hydel project which had come over to us as share of division of assets of the old Assam State Electricity Board. I regret no extra funds were made available for our other pressing needs due to the tight financial position. The plan size ultimately stands at Rs.18.65 lakhs.
Annual Plan 1976-77.
7. For 1976-77, the State Government had presented proposals amounting to Rs. 28.88 crores to the Planning Commission . This included Rs. 6 crores for Kyrdemkulai power project. But an outlay of Rs. 20.22 crores including Rs. 4.50 crores of Kyrdemkulai project was agreed to. We have, however, been assured of increases in outlays of roads, health and for the schemes of cadastral surveys after further examination.
7.1 Nearly 39 percent of the plan will be devoted to schemes under 20 point economic programme. Agriculture and allied sectors, roads and transport will continue to receive priority. Their shares in the next annual plan are 29.70 percent and 21.63 percent respectively.
7.2 The details of the plan schemes have been furnished to this august House through a supplementary note which has been laid in the House.
8. I now briefly mention the important details and achievements in different sectors of our economy and administration.
Agriculture and Irrigation.
9. The foodgrains production is likely to increase from 1.24 lakh tonnes in 1974-75 to 1.35 lakh tonnes this year. The target for 1976-77 is 1.40 lakh tonnes. The area under high-yielding varieties increased form 10,200 hectares in 1974-75 to 12,000 hectares this year. The target for 1976-77 is 16,000 hectares. Consumption of fertilizers this year is more than that of 1974-75. Transport subsidy thereon will be continued. Government propose to popularise rock phosphate through large-scale demonstrations to persuade the people to give up the costly bonemeal. Three projects under flow irrigation and 6 under lift irrigation are in progress during the current year. A special scheme to sink 100 shallow tube-wells has been undertaken in Garo Hills District which will irrigate 1,200 hectares. During 1976-77 at least 3 new flow irrigation projects and 6 more lift irrigation schemes will be taken up. The irrigation department has also been re-organised and strengthened with a view to hasten surveys sand complete the schemes. Training of personnel continues to receive attention.
10. It is through animal husbandry and dairy schemes that supplementary employment can be given to the agriculturists and their economic conditions improved. Steps have been taken to expand state cattle farms some poultry farms and the Saitsama sheep farms. The Indo-Danish Project has taken up extension work of artificial insemination. It has been decided to set up a feed mill at Tura. With a view to extend veterinary facilities, more dispensaries and aid centres are under construction. Three pig farms have been expanded and 3 new farms are being established at Nongstoin. Rongjeng and Jowai. During the current year, 80 students have been sent for B.V.Sc. and 20 students for VFA courses. Next year, it is proposed to send 25 students for B.V.Sc. and 20 students for VFA course.
11. The Department continues to successfully move ahead in weaning the people away from jhumming to settled type of cultivation. During 1975-76, 500 families in 9 centres will be benefited. For the next year, it is proposed to cover 600 families. Other schemes like prevention of erosion, provision of irrigation to areas developed for permanent cultivating, cash crop cultivation, afforestation, etc., were continued.
12. The co-operative sector has been assigned a significant and enlarged role specially in view of the new economic programme. The scheme of revitalisation and re-organisation of the primary level societies under the master plan prepared by the Reserve Bank of India is expected to be completed by the end of the next financial year. The Co-operative Apex Bank will open 6 more branches. The Meghalaya State Cooperative Marketing Federation which has been set up during the year will enlarge its scope of activities and will undertaken the purchase and marketing of the produce of the border areas. This Federation will also undertaken distribution of consumer goods through the co-operatives in a big way. A new direction of co-operative activity will be the organisation of housing cooperatives. The recovery of overdues from the defaulting members and societies will receive stricter attention from the Government and effective steps will be taken to realise them and to create a healthy climate for repayment of loans. Unless the money is circulated, we cannot do further development.
13. The Development Blocks are the nearest administrative agency to the people. We propose to utilise them fully for rural development programmes. In addition to Rs. 10 lakhs for regular schemes in the next annual plan, it is proposed to channelise Rs. 15 lakhs for schemes of soil conservation, waster supply, small industries, animal husbandry, roads and education. This year the amount channelised is Rs. 11.50 lakhs.
13.1 As regards specially backward and most backward areas programme, it was decided to concentrate in removing certain handicaps in the sphere of communications, water supply, education and health, in those Blocks which were most deficient. Accordingly 7 Blocks were selected-3 in Khasi Hills, 3 in Garo Hills and 1 in Jaintia Hills and an amount of Rs. 26 lakhs was sanctioned. Next year the provision will be raised to Rs. 30 lakhs and another set of Blocks will be selected with the same objective in view.
14. Forests are one of the major renewable resources of the State. approximately 1,000 hectares are planted every year both in the reserve forests and in the District Councils forest areas. Communication system is also strengthened with a view to facilitate forest exploitation. Establishment of wild life sanctuary at Balpahakram is in progress. While the mini zoo in Shillong is becoming more popular, another one at Tura is under construction. Sanctuaries for preservation of rare flora like pitcher plant and orchids have been established. The Forest Development Corporation has started timber extraction works and resign tapping. Project report for large scale industrial plantations of pine and teak with institutional finance are under their preparation.
15. Increase in supply of fish seeds is being done through construction and expansion of fish seed production and demonstration farms. Enforcement machinery has been strengthened to protect natural fisheries. It is also proposed to develop the Barapani Lake in consultation with the Khasi Hills District Council. Exploitation of fishery potential in Tasek Lake has been taken up in collaboration with School of Life Science of N.E.H.U.
16. During the current year, there was fortunately no major natural calamity. Relief measures were extended wherever there were hardships due to excessive rainfall, depredations by wild animals, fire, etc. As per recommendation of the Land Reforms Commission, Government propose to initiate cadastral surveys in a phased manner. Accordingly steps have been taken to train personnel in survey and also to strengthen the State Survey School.
17. With a view to meet lack of medical personnel 69 students have been admitted in different medical colleges out of Meghalaya quota. They will start passing from 1979 and we hope the problem will ease considerable. Due to increased demand, the bed-strength of Shillong Civil Hospital has been increased to 200. Similarly, it is proposed to increase bed strength in the Ganesh Das Hospital from 150 to 230. Seven Primary Health Centres are under completion and 2 more will be taken up. A homoeopathic dispensary has been set-up in Shillong. Work for the Tura Civil Hospital at the new site and expansion of Jowai Civil Hospital continue to progress. District Food Inspectors have been appointed with a view to check adulteration.
18. Jowai Waster Supply Scheme started in 1974 is now in good progress. As regards Greater Shillong Water Supply Scheme, the estimate has increased from Rs. 439 lakhs to Rs. 816 lakhs. The Scheme has been technically approved and steps are being taken to tie up its financing with Life Insurance Corporation of India. During the current year, 17 rural water supply schemes were sanctioned in addition to the 53 continuing schemes. Thirty percent of rural population is expected to be covered by this year. Emphasis will be next year on completion of the schemes under implementation.
19. The science education programme at the primary and middle level with the assistance of United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has been given impetus. Book banks have been started in several colleges, high schools and middle schools. Production and sale of exercise books at controlled prices has also been taken up. It is under consideration to establish a State Council of Educational Research and Training which will concentrate on improving the academic side of education. A State Museum has been set up. A comprehensive survey of education has been started in collaboration with NCERT
19.1 Our primary objective is to equip the young people with necessary knowledge and skills for their successful career in life. Sports and games are also given due consideration from the point of view of health and recreation. These were organised at different levels and terms were sponsored to participate in some national games The second all-India archery championship was also held in Shillong.
20. Two destitute homes for women, one at Shillong and another at Tura have been sanctioned. One correctional home for delinquent children at Sohiong is also being set-up.
21. During the current year it is proposed to complete 117 kms of new roads and surface 35 kms of new roads and surface 35 kms of existing roads. The target for next year is to construct 120 kms of new roads and 35 kms of surfaced roads. Good progress has been maintained in the construction of buildings this year and subject to availability of funds, the tempo will be continued during 1976-77.
Food Control and Irrigation.
22. Nineteen schemes under flood control are in progress. Rongai Valley Irrigation Scheme in Garo Hills will be taken up for implementation as soon as the investigations are completed.
23. The Meghalaya State Electricity Board has recently completed one year of its existence. The problem of financing Kyrdemkulai project was satisfactorily solved as stated earlier. During the current year it is proposed to electrify 82 villages. Investigation of Umiam-Umtru Stage IV and collection of hydrological data for Myntdu Leishka are continuing. Investigation of micro-hydel projects in Garo Hills will also be taken up.
24. In the small-scale sector, the department continued to provide training of artisans, raw materials, display of local products through industrial exhibitions, industrial loans and grants. Construction of industrial estates at Shillong and at Mendipathar continues to progress. The Meghalaya Industrial Development Corporation has secured 9 licenses and completed several feasibility studies based on local resources. The projects in which they have participated are progressing. Several private entrepreneurs have also secured licenses for industrial units. Efforts are being made to avoid concentration of industrial units in a particular area by offering different scales of incentives.
24.1. It has also been decided to set up our own State Financial Corporation. This is likely to improve financing of small and medium industrial units.
Sericulture and Weaving :-
25. In the next year, 3 more eri concentration centres and 3 collective mulberry gardens are proposed to be established. The muga farm at Resubelpara and the tasar centre at Garampani worked satisfactorily. As regards the weaving training classes, these continue to impart training in weaving. To attract candidatures, the rate of stipend was also increased. More weavers' extension service units are being established. It is also proposed to establish 5 weaving demonstration centres next year with a view to impart better designs and techniques of weaving.
Mineral Development :-
26. It is necessary to have a complete idea of the mineral resources before any decisions can be taken for their commercial exploitation. With this end in view, the Department has been carrying out investigations. The feasibility report for mining of Nangalbibra coal is now ready. Enough coal is available for a thermal power station and clinker factory for which feasibility reports have been made and are awaiting decisions of the Central Government. Detailed investigations of Lumshnong limestone deposits in Jaintia Hills in connection with the proposed cement factory have also been taken up. With a view to ensure supply of coal to Mawmluh-Cherra cements factory, detailed investigation of Mawlong coal-field has been started with assistance from the North Eastern Council. To facilitate analysis of samples of minerals an analytical laboratory started functioning this year. Some students have been awarded scholarships for undergoing degree courses in earth sciences with a view to meet future requirement to trained personnel.
Essential Supplies :-
27. Though the Central quota in rice and sugar was never enough, the general supply position was satisfactory. In keeping with the price trend in the rest of the country, the prices of essential commodities also fell in Meghalaya after the emergency. Suitable steps were taken against hoarding and black marketing. There were intensive drives to eliminate ghost ration cards. Controlled cloth was distributed through a network of co-operative societies. Transport subsidy scheme to make available essential commodities in the border areas was continued. Special steps were taken to to ensure supply of essential commodities to student's hostels.
28. The State Transport Undertaking is a commercial organisation and has to be operated on business lines. Our aim is to operate it at least on no loss basis. By the end of 1975-76, it will be operating on 10 routes covering about 1,000 kms. The services will be expanded in the next year. In spite of our best efforts, the question of bifurcation of the Assam State and Meghalaya State Road Transport Corporation could not be settled. The matter is now awaiting decision of the Central government. Steps have also been taken to obtain expert advice for efficient running of the Transport Undertaking. The ropeway survey from Shella to Byrnihat is expected to be completed next year.
29. Organisation of tourist festivals and improvement of tourist sites were the main activities during the current year. Efforts will continue to be made to provide better facilities to attract tourists.
Printing and Stationery :-
30 . It has been decided to start a Government Press at Tura to meet the immediate need of printing requirements of that area.
Border Areas Programme :-
31. For the current year an amount of Rs. 65 lakhs has been earmarked with main emphasis on communications and agriculture including horticulture. These programmes are supplementary to the normal state plan schemes. For next yeas, the provision is raised to Rs. 70 lakhs and emphasis will continue to be given to roads and agricultural schemes. With 22 percent of the total area and 23 percent of the rural population on the border and the problems faced by them, the amounts so far allotted are not sufficient. We have been representing the matter to the Planning Commission and we hope a satisfactory solution will be reached.
Excise and Taxes:-
32. The report of the Meghalaya Taxation and Resources Enquiry Committee has been received. It has made several suggestions with a view to streamline the taxes and excise administration . It has also made suggestions on improving the services rendered by some departments. The report has been circulated to all concerned departments for immediate examination and implementation. Government has also given careful consideration to the 12-Point Programme on Prohibition and given their decision which has been circulated in a separate Press Note. Views of the Central Government have now been received and these are under examination.
North Eastern Council Schemes:-
33. For the current year, the allocation is about Rs. 1.55 crores which has now been reduced to about Rs. 97 lakhs because of the delay in the receipt of administrative approval to the road schemes. For 1976-77, the tentative outlay is about Rs. 1.54 crores. The outlay covers mainly schemes relating to animal husbandry and dairy, sericulture, roads and power.
Pay Revision and Staff Welfare:-
34. Action has now almost been completed in giving the benefits of pay revision to different categories of government employees. It has also been decided to provide insurance cover linked with provident fund deposit subject to a ceiling of Rs. 10,000 without any medical examination. For meeting expenses of children's education, the Government has sanctioned a maximum advance of Rs. 300 recoverable in six monthly installments to the lower categories of government employees.
35. To facilitate the work of development departments, increased financial powers were delegated to them. It has also been decided to reprint important manuals and rules. The issue of financial sanctions was regularly monitored under the Chairmanship of the Chief Secretary and I am glad to say that the results this year have been much better than in the past.
36. Before I refer to the next year's estimates let me give you a brief picture of the actuals for 1974-75 and revised for 1975-76.
37. The year opened with negative cash balance of Rs. 319.50 lakhs. In that year there was a total receipt of Rs. 8723.75 lakhs and a total expenditure of Rs. 8587.24 lakhs under all accounts including investment in Government of India treasury bills. Thus there was a surplus of Rs. 136.51 lakhs. Therefore, the closing balance was reduced to Rs. (-)182.99 lakhs from that of Rs. (-)319.50 lakhs in the previous year. However, on the close of the year, we had also an investment of Rs. 248.50 lakhs in Government of India treasury bills.
38. The revised estimates for the current year show a total receipt of Rs. 9452.45 lakhs and a total expenditure of Rs. 9382.36 lakhs under all accounts leaving a surplus of Rs. 70.09 lakhs. This will enable us to reduce the closing balance to Rs. (-)112.90 lakhs from that of Rs. (-) 182.99 lakhs in the previous year. According to the latest assessment of State resources made jointly by the State officials and officials of the Planning Commission and the Ministry of Finance, the gap in resources in the State Government budget was worked out at Rs. 1.71 crores. The gap now, in the revised estimates is lower by Rs. 58 lakhs. This is due to the likely receipt of some arrear dues from the Government of India and due to receipt of share of small savings collections. To cover the remaining gap we 28 have taken up with the Government of India for assistance. Therefore, we hope to close the year without any deficit.
Budget Estimates 1976-77.
39. Now, I turn to the Budget estimates for 1976-77. The estimated receipt on revenue account is Rs. 3499.79 lakhs and the expenditure on revenue account is Rs. 3423.60 lakhs leaving a small surplus of Rs. 76.19 lakhs.
39.1. Estimated receipt outside revenue accounts is Rs. 6198.78 lakhs. Estimated expenditure outside revenue account is Rs. 6632.82 lakhs leaving a deficit of Rs. 434.04 lakhs. Thus, taking the revenue surplus into account the net deficit will be Rs. 357.85 lakhs.
39.2. However, according to the assessment of resources made jointly by the State officials and the officials of the Planning Commission and the Ministry of Finance, the gap in resources in the State budget was worked out at Rs. 3.80 crores. Thus there is a little improvement of Rs. 22.15 lakhs in the Budget estimates. The deficit is worked out on the same amount of Central assistance as last year. I trust this will be reasonably increased in view of improved collections of Central revenues. We have also requested for bigger borrowing at least to the level of Rs. 3.87 crores reached in 1974-75. In the course of next 2 months there will be discussions with the officials of Planning Commission and Central Finance Ministry to find out ways and means of closing the gap in resources.
40. In the budget documents we have not shown the power plan estimates because this plan will be entirely financed from the resources of the Meghalaya Electricity Board. The plan outlay is Rs. 6.50 crores out of which Rs.4.50 crores is for Kyrdemkulai power project, Rs. 60 lakhs for rural electrification under Minimum Needs Programme, Rs. 100 lakhs for other rural electrification schemes and Rs. 40 lakhs for normal development and investigations. The resources of the Board are Rs. 1.10 crores from market borrowings, Rs. 1 crore from Rural Electrification Corporation, Rs. 51 lakhs from internal resources and Rs. 36 lakhs from Life Insurance Corporation of India. This makes a total of Rs.3.57 crores including assistance of Rs. 60 lakhs for Minimum Needs Programme Schemes. thus there is a gap of Rs.2.93 crores. This will have to be filled up by increase borrowing from open market and LIC. The budget Meghalaya State Electricity Board will be separate presented to the Assembly in due course.
41. I regret very much I am presenting a define Budget. It is estimated at Rs. 4.71 crores including minimum closing balance of Rs. 1.13 crores. While there is always scope for some economy in expenditure, I may remain the Hon'ble Members that it is only in the last two years, we have been able to properly establish our officer Still the administration is far from the people in some areas stressing the need for more districts and subdivisions on which we have recently taken a decision. During the Session I propose to bring some amendments to the Meghalaya Purchase Tax Act but the yield therefrom small. More comprehensive changes to the Sales Tax and excise Laws will have to wait detailed examination of the Report of the Meghalaya Taxation and Resource Enquiry Committee. I hope this will be done soon. The implementation of their recommendations may not yield much more revenues but I hope there will be better services from the departments. At this stage I am leaving the deficit largely uncovered.
42. The country is now moving towards a better society where the masses will no longer be exploited and the weaker sections will not be forgotten under the able leadership of the Prime Minister. We also in Meghalaya wholeheartedly join her in this endeavour. The Prime Minister has also reminded us that there is only one magic which can remove poverty, that is, hard work sustained by clear vision, iron will and the strictest discipline. I seek the co-operation of all Hon'ble Members and through them of all the people in the task to take Meghalaya ahead in the new era of prosperity.
43. Mr. Speaker, Sir, with these words, I present the Budget for 1976-77 for consideration and acceptance of the House.
The financial position for the year 1076-77 with corresponding position in previous years.
(Rupees in Lakhs)
|Capital Receipts under the Consolidated Fund.||876.57||483.30||323.86||433.13|
|Receipts under the Contingency Fund||37.95||95.52||75.00||75.00|
|Receipts under the Public Account||9349.18||5190.18||5691.50||5701.65|
|Capital Expenditure under the Consolidated Fund.||730.76||765.93||817.19||896.67|
|Expenditure under the Contingency Fund||18.79||47.18||70.36||75.00|
|Expenditure under from the Public Account||9472.26||5272.49||5375.25||5661.15|
|Net Result -|
|(a) On Revenue Account||(-)225.09||(+)452.11||(+)242.53||(+)76.19|
|(B) Outside Revenue Account||(+)41.89||(-)315.60||(-)172.44||(-)434.04|
|(c) Net excluding the opening Balance||(-)183.20||(+)136.51||(+)70.90||(-)357.85|
[(+) Indicates Surplus and (-) indicates deficit]