Movement for the creation of a separate Hill State was started in 1960 and after 12 years of struggle, the State of Meghalaya was born. Meghalaya the 21st State of the Indian Union was carved out of the erstwhile State of Assam on the 2nd April, 1970 as an autonomous State, created under the Assam Reorganisation (Meghalaya) Act 1969, consisting of the former Garo Hills District and United Khasi and Jaintia Hills district of Assam. Meghalaya became a full fledged state in the midnight of January 20-21, 1972 in accordance with the provisions contained in the North Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971.

    Meghalaya has a unicameral Legislature based on adult franchise consisting of 60 (sixty) Members. It is duly constituted upon the issue of a notification under section 73 of the Representation of the People Act 1951 (43 of 1951

    The General Elections to the Legislative Assembly were held in 1972, 1978, 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2003. At present there are 55 reserved Legislative Assembly seats and 5 unreserved Legislative Assembly seats.

    The First Session of the Meghalaya Legislative Assembly was held on the 25th March, 1972 at 14.00 hours with the Acting Speaker (Shri Jor Manik Syiem) in the Chair at Shillong, assembled in the old Council Hall of the composite Assam State. Prior from 2nd April, 1970 to 21st January, 1972 when Meghalaya was an autonomous State, the first Session of the Provisional Meghalaya Legislative Assembly consisting of 41 (forty one) Members, 38 (thirty eight) Members indirectly elected and 3 (three) Members nominated met at the District Council Hall, Tura, at 8.30 A.M. on Tuesday the 14th April, 1970 with Shri Simon Jenkin Duncan (Acting Speaker) in the Chair.

    The Meghalaya Legislative Assembly is one of the most disciplined Assembly in the Country, and a very high standard of debates, are maintained, thereby, upholding the dignity and prestige of the House.